10. Within-Subjects Design

Activity: Identifying Potential Threats to Internal Validity Using MRS SMITH

To help students remember potential sources of threats to internal validity, I use the acronym “MRS SMITH.” This resource provides a handout describing these threats as well as an activity where students need to identify these possible threats. Click here for a link to the activity.

Video: One Sample and Paired-Samples t-test (SPSS for Beginners)

Video (6:02) from Research by Design and Dr. Todd Daniel, described as follows, “When we calculate the mean of a sample, we can then use a one-sample t test to compare that sample mean to another mean, such as a mean from a population, a normative group, or another known value (mean). The “one sample”

Video: How to Do a One Sample and Paired-Samples t Test in JASP

Video (16:57) from Research by Design in which, “The One Sample t-Test is a parametric procedure that tests whether a sample mean is statistically significantly different than a population mean or other known value. We will open a CSV dataset in JASP, check the assumptions of the test, conduct the one sample t-test, interpret the

Practice: Repeated-Measures ANOVA

In this activity, students will take data from a fictitious design to practice conducting a Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). First, provide students with the research scenario and the accompanying questions to have them determine the research design, statistical analysis to use, and independent and dependent variables. Next, have students set up a data file

Assignment: t-test for Dependent/Paired Samples (SPSS)

In this assignment (created by Dr. Kimberly A. Barchard and Dr. Leiszle Lapping-Carr), students learn how to use SPSS to compare dependent groups using the dependent samples t-test and using confidence intervals for the difference of the means. A detailed grading rubric is included. This assignment was designed to be completed with an existing dataset

Exemplar Study: Do Graphic Warnings Make Cigarettes Less Cool? (Mixed Design)

This study examined the effectiveness of graphic warnings (i.e., pictures) for reducing the appeal of tobacco products. In the study, researchers exposed smokers and nonsmokers to combinations of large versus small warning labels and the inclusion versus omission of graphic pictures on three types of tobacco products. For the within-subjects component, each participant saw advertisements

Exemplar Study: Does Cuteness Make Us Careful? (Mixed Design)

This article examined how the perception of cuteness influences behavioral carefulness, enhancing people’s ability to care for infants. While researchers took physiological measures of heart activity and skin conductance, they exposed participants to a slide show of pictures of either infant animals (kittens and puppies) previously judged as very cute or adult animals (cats and

Exemplar Study: Can You Accurately Judge Romantic Interest? (Mixed Design)

This study sought to determine whether a third party could discern romantic interest between two strangers. To test this, male and female observers watched video clips of speed-dating situations to determine the individual speed dater’s level of romantic interest toward the speed-dating partner. Participants observed clips of different lengths (10 vs. 30 s), and from

Exemplar Study: Must Be Love on the Brain (Within-Subjects/Repeated-Measures Design)

This research focused on the brain functioning of people in love. Participants who rated themselves as being intensely in love, viewed a photo of their beloved, did a distracter task, and then viewed a photo of a neutral acquaintance while researchers took functional magnetic resonance imagery (fMRI). Each participant repeated the procedure six times. When

Practice: Calculating the t-test for Paired-Samples/Dependent Means (Drugs and Learning)

Instructors should assign this problem (about drugs and learning) to students as in-class practice or homework after students have learned how to calculate a t-test for dependent means and test for significance. The activity leads students through determining the type of statistical analysis to use, the hypotheses, calculating the t-ratio and effect size (if appropriate),

Lecture Slides: Calculating the t-test for Paired-Samples/Dependent Means (Weight Loss Study)

The goal of this PowerPoint is to work through the step-by-step process of hand calculating a t-test for dependent means. The slides start with an explanation of the formula involved and then a sample problem is presented. It is designed for you to have the class solve the problem along with you as you advance

Lecture Slides: Pie Taste Test (MultiGroup / Repeated-Measures Design Demonstration)

In this demonstration/activity (with PowerPoint slides) four student volunteers have the opportunity to provide taste ratings for several types of pie.  Instructors would need to provide plates, napkins, utensils, and the 4 types of pie. Type of pie can obviously vary, but students seem to be more engaged when there is an obvious “cheap” kind

Design & Data: Can Watching Reality TV Shows Be Good for Us? (Within-Subjects Design, t-test for Paired/Dependent Samples, and Repeated-Measures ANOVA)

Key Topics and Links to Files Data Analysis Guide Can Watching Reality TV Shows Be Good for Us? Analyses Included: t-test for Dependent Means/Paired Samples t-test; Repeated-Measures ANOVA Dataset Syntax Output BONUS: Does Talking Lead to Distracted Driving? Analyses Included: Repeated-Measures ANOVA Dataset Syntax Output The Data Analysis Guide contains all of the following: Design

Practice: Calculating the t-test for Paired-Samples/Dependent Means (Thinking Logically Over Time)

Instructors should assign this problem (about graduate programs training students to think logically) to students as in-class practice or homework after students have learned how to calculate a t-test for dependent means and test for significance. The activity leads students through determining the type of statistical analysis to use, the hypotheses, calculating the t-ratio and